Theme: Grief, Guilt, and Revenge!
Grades: Grades 11-12
Hamlet, Shakespeare's most well-known and most frequently performed
play, is a tragedy of revenge, betrayal, and inner conflict. The Danish
prince Hamlet is outraged by the hasty marriage of his uncle, Claudius,
to his mother after the death of his father. When he is told in a terrifying
encounter with his father's ghost that Claudius had in fact poisoned
the king, Hamlet agrees to avenge the murder. Throughout the play, however,
he faces a struggle between his desire to act and the uncertainties,
fears, and obstacles that prevent him from doing so. In the midst of
his anguish and ambivalence, he feigns madness, spurns the woman he
had loved, and leaves a trail of death and destruction before finally
killing Claudius and dying himself.
- Concept Web.
Ask students to work independently or in small groups to create a
word web or other graphic organizer that explores one or more of the
following concepts: fate, revenge, ambition, guilt. You might encourage
students who are having difficulty in getting started to define the
concept, give examples that illustrate it, and list their personal
reactions to the concept.
Have students discuss or role-play the following situation. Ask them
to imagine that they feel guilty about a crime they have committed.
They want to have peace of mind, but they are unwilling to give up
what they gained from their crime. Have students role-play a discussion
of their situation with a psychologist or spiritual advisor.
Out for Blood.
Have students tell revenge stories to the class. They can read contemporary
stories, folk tales, or stories they have made up. After each story
is read, ask the class to compare the story's hero with Hamlet.
- A Deadly Game.
Hamlet must overcome many obstacles before finally achieving his goal
of revenge. Have students develop a Hamlet game in which the
characters advance along squares on a board by throwing dice. The
squares may have situations from the play that either reward or penalize
the player who lands on them, or they may call on the player to make
- The History of Blood Revenge.
Discuss the concept of blood revenge with students. Blood revengepersonal
injury inflicted by an individual in revenge for an injury to that
individual or a family memberis most commonly practiced in communities
or societies where no formal legal system exists. Ask students to
research the history of this primitive form of justice and write a
research paper about it.
- Mourning Practices.
Inititate a discussion about mourning in Hamlet. Claudius complains
that Hamlet grieves for too long, and Hamlet complains that Laertes
grieves too loudly. In this project, students will give oral reports
on mourning practices in different cultures.
- Have the class brainstorm a list of questions about mourning,
such as, What rituals do family members perform? How are people
supposed to express sorrow? How are the dead memorialized? Then
ask students to name cultures whose mourning practices they would
like to learn more about.
- Divide the class into small groups, assign each group a different
culture, and then have students in each group research the mourning
practices of that culture. Research might include interviewing
family members, classmates, or friends. Encourage students to
find artistic expressions of mourning to share with the class,
such as songs, music, poems, and artwork.
- Students should decide among themselves how they will share
in the presentation of information. After they finish their research,
have each group give an oral report to the class.