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Lesson 23 The letters j, ge, and dge

Tested List

1. justice 11. challenge
2. juice 12. language
3. jumbo 13. damage
4. juvenile 14. mileage
5. jacket 15. marriage
6. journal 16. judge
7. pajamas 17. pledge
8. conjunction 18. bridge
9. rejoice 19. badge
10. injury 20. dodge

Self-Correcting the Pretest and Discovering the Generalization
1. Have a student write the word justice on the board, a chart, or an overhead projector. Tell students that all of the pretest words contain the /j/ sound represented by the letter j, which begins this word, but that the /j/ sound is spelled differently in different words. Direct students who have misspelled justice on their pretests to cross the word out and rewrite it correctly. As the next five words are introduced and corrected, lead students to generalize that the/j/ sound at the beginning of a word is usually spelled with the letter j.
2. Write pajamas, and underline the letters ja. Ask students how the letter g is usually pronounced when it is followed by the vowel a. As the next three words are corrected, lead students to recognize that j, unlike g, retains a soft sound before the vowels a, o, and u.
3. Next write challenge, and ask students to identify the letters that make the /j/ sound. Underline the letters ge. Continue this procedure with the next four words. Lead students to recognize that the letters ge spell the /j/ sound at the end of words. (Note: Alert students that the word mileage does not drop the silent e before age. Explain that this is an irregularity.) Be sure to allow time for students to correct the ge words on their pretests.
4. Now have a volunteer write the word judge. Say the word judge aloud, and ask students if the d can be heard. Continue the procedure with the remaining words. Emphasize that when the letter d comes before the letter g the d is silent and that this silent letter that can cause spelling problems.
5. After the last five words have been corrected, ask students what else these words have in common. Lead them to recognize that all are one-syllable words with short vowel sounds.
6. Tell students to look back at challenge, language, damage, mileage, and marriage. Ask if any of these ge words has one syllable. Lead students to the generalization that the /j/ sound at the end of a word is usually spelled ge; only in one-syllable words with short vowels is it spelled dge. (A notable exception to the dge pattern is the word knowledge. You may want to point out to students that the word ledge follows the pattern, even when it is joined to know.)

Checking for Understanding

To be sure students understand the lesson generalization, guide them in completing the answers on the student page. Then have students read the lesson generalization and discuss it.

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